Sep 072009
 

ECC Memory

ECC stands for Error Checking and Correction. ECC memory is widely used in workstation and server computers.

What Is ECC and How Does It Work?

As the name “Error Checking and Correction” suggests, ECC is technology that allows computers to correct memory errors. The most popular type of ECC used in memory modules is single bit error correction. This enables the detection and correction of single-bit errors (within a byte, or 8bits of data). It will also detect two-bit and some multiple bit errors, but is unable to correct them.

How dos ECC work? Take the most common single bit error correction for example. For each byte of data sent across the memory bus, a check-bit is generated by calculating that byte of data using an Exclusive OR algorithm. This check-bit will be stored in a separate memory chip. That is why memory modules with ECC capabilities sport 9 memory chips on each side, rather than the 8 chips per side we often see with non-ECC memory modules.
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Jul 092008
 

One of the ways in determining what is going on inside the UNIX kernel is to make use of the /proc filesystem. Some of that information may be disk arrays connected to your server or querying kernel parameters. The /proc filesystem offers an interface to important kernel data structures that provide information about the state of a running UNIX kernel by use of special files. The System Administrators uses the UNIX cat command to list the contents of those special files.

Under Linux, it is also possible to set certain kernel parameters by using the echo command. For example, to change the kernel parameter value used to control the maximum socket receive buffer size, net.core.rmem_default, to 262144, use the following:

# echo 262144 > /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default

It is important to understand when setting kernel parameters in Linux using the echo command, (as in the above example), these settings need to be applied each time the system boots. Some distributions of Linux already have a setup method for this during boot. On Red Hat, this can be configured in /etc/sysctl.conf: (like: net.core.rmem_default = 262144).

This article attempts to list some of the more common files used by System Administrators. Although most of these special files are general enough to apply to all flavors or UNIX (Solaris, Linux, HP-UX, etc.), I indicate those that only apply to a particular platform.

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